Active Voice And Passive Voice: The aspirants who are preparing for competitive exams both private and government sector face difficulty in English language section. To score marks in English section is very easy if we know some basic tricks. For solving all your queries of English language, we are here with an article on the English language. Most of the aspirants feel weak in the topic Active / Passive voice. This topic is very important for this examination so, you must be good enough at this topic for scoring maximum marks in the English Language.
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The students feel confused by whether they are using the active or passive voice when writing, and in which scenario each is preferred. But, there is a simple way of identifying the two styles; the key to understanding the difference between them is to spot the subject and the object in each sentence, and then selectively order the way you introduce them.
When a sentence begins with a subject, it is in Active voice. In an active voice sentence, the subject is the element that is doing the action, whereas the object is the element that is receiving the action described by the verb.
Example: She sings a song.
Here ‘She’ is the subject and this sentence begins with the subject, in this way it is in Active voice.
If a sentence begins with an object, it is in Passive voice. In passive sentence, the element targeted by the action is promoted to the subject position. The passive sentence will result in the subject effectively doing nothing, because whatever is happening is being done to it.
Example: A song is sung by her.
In the above sentence, ‘A song’ is an object and this sentence begins with an object, so this is in Passive voice.
The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Therefore, sentences which do not have an object cannot be changed into the passive. The following sentences, for instance, cannot be changed into the passive because they do not have objects.
• He is laughing.
• I am going.
• Reeta is sleeping.
• The wind blows.
Rules of Active and Passive Voice:
The Following are the main Rules of Active and Passive Voice Sentences.
• The subject will Become Object.
• The Object will become Subject.
• Third Form of the Verb.
• Change the Helping verb according to the Tense of the Active Voice Sentence.
• Use of by just before the Object.
• I changes to ME
• THEY to THEM
• HE to HIM
• SHE to HER
• WE to US
• WHO to WHOM
• IT to IT
• YOU to YOU
• WHAT to WHAT
• WHICH to WHICH
Structure of the active and passive voice for the different tenses:
1. Simple Present
Active voice: Subject+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object +is/am/are+V3 + Subject
2. Present Continuous
Active voice: Subject +is/am/are+V1+ing+Object
Passive Voice: Object +is/am/are+being+V3+by+Subject
3. Present Perfect
Active voice: Subject +has/have+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object+ has/have+been+V3+by+Subject
4. Simple Past
Active voice: Subject+V2+Object
Passive Voice: Object +was/were+V3+by+Subject
5. Past Continuous
Active voice: Subject +was/were+V1+ing+Object
Passive Voice: Object +was/were+being+V3+by+Subject
6. Past Perfect
Active voice: Subject+Had+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object+Had+been+V3+by+Subject
7. Simple Future
Active voice: Subject +Will/Shall+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object +Will/Shall+Be+V3+By+Subject
8. Future Continuous
Active voice: Subject +Will/Shall+be+V1+ing+Object
Passive Voice: We can Not make Passive Voice
9. Future Perfect
Active voice: Subject +Shall/will+have+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object +Shall/will+have+been+V3+by+Subject
Special Case For Modals:
1. In Simple Tense:
Active voice: Subject +Modal+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object+Modal+Be+V3+By+Subject
2. In Continuous Tense:
Active voice: Subject+Modal+be+V1+Ing+Object
Passive Voice: We can Not make Passive Voice
3. In Perfect Tense:
Active voice: Subject+Modal+Have+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object+Modal+Have+Been+V3+By+Subject
Present Indefinite Tense:
Object + is /am/are + past participle of verb + by + Subject.
1) Active: He cooks the food.
Passive: The food is cooked by him.
2) Active: She plays chess daily.
Passive: Chess is played by her daily.
3) Active: He drinks milk.
Passive: Milk is drunk by him.
Past Indefinite Tense:
Object + was/were + past participle of verb + by + Subject
1) Active: James cooked the food.
Passive: The food was cooked by James.
2) Active: His father scolded him.
Passive: He was scolded by his father.
3) Active: He finished homework.
Passive: Homework was finished by him.
Perfect Tense (Present, Past and Future)
Object + been + Past Participle of verb + by + Subject.
1) Active: She has finished her work.
Passive: Her work has been finished by her.
2) Active: Sandeep had donated some money to soldiers.
Passive: Some money had been donated by Sandeep to soldiers.
3) Active: She will have visited her home.
Passive: Her home will have been visited by her.
Continuous Tense (Present and Past)
Object + being + past participle of verb + by+ Subject
1) Active: She is cooking food.
Passive: Food is being cooked by her.
2) Active: Children are playing football.
Passive: Football is being played by children.
3) Active: Employees were protesting the management.
Passive: The management was being protested by the employees.
Future Indefinite Tense + Modals
Object + be + past participle of verb + object
1) Active: You should respect your elders.
Passive: Your elders should be respected by you.
2) Active: She will teach us tomorrow.
Passive: We will be taught by her tomorrow.
Changing a negative sentence into the passive voice.
1) Active: I do not speak a lie.
Passive: A lie is not spoken by me.
2) Active: He does not sing a song
Passive: A song is not sung by him.
Changing an interrogative sentence into the passive voice.
Is/are/am + Object + past participle of verb + by + Subject
1) Active: Which newspaper do you read?
Passive: Which newspaper is read by you?
2) Active: Does he eat a bar of chocolate?
Passive: Is a bar of chocolate eaten by him?
The sentences of the following tenses cannot be changed into Passive voice:
• Present Perfect Continous Tense
• Past Perfect Continous Tense
• Future Perfect Continous Tense
• Future Continous Tense
• Sentences having intransitive verbs.